Push/Pull wird ermittelt, indem man bei Zone VIII (hier bei +3 Blenden) hoch geht und
dann nach rechts (Push) oder links (Pull) die Blenden (N) zählt bis zur Idealline.
Also die rote Kurve wäre etwa N-2,5.
Den linearen Bereich interpoliere ich dann (-2 bis +2 Blenden) und ziehe mir aus der
Regressionsgeraden der jeweiligen Daten der Werte für die 3. Blendenstufe.
Dann gehe ich mathematisch wie oben vor und bestimme die N-Werte bei Zone VIII für
jede Kurve und plotte die gegen die Zeit (in Sekunden).
Und wir erhalten mit der schönen Formel oben für
Agfaphoto APX 100 @ISO100
510-Pyro 1+300 @21°C
Restzeit 1x alle 10 Minuten
N-3 N-2 N-1 N N+1 N+2 N+3
21:00 26:00 32:00 39:30 48:45 60:00 74:00
Viele von Euch wundern sich ja über den Kontrastumfang, den die Pyro510-Negative hergeben.
ist aber einfach der Tatsache geschuldet, dass ein Großteil der hier
gezeigten Negative etwa nur die Hälfte der notwenigen Zeit entwickelt
wurden. Man nennt das auch allgemein „Pull-Entwicklung“ was zu einer
Komprimierung des Kontrastumfangs führt.
Ziel sollte es aber sein, zunächst die Entwicklung so einzustellen, wie es einer (N)ormalentwicklung entspricht.
Dann kann man nachher bewußt auf Grundlage des Motivkontrasts entscheiden, ob man Pushen oder Pullen will.
N-Entwicklung sollte alles von noch gerade gezeichnetem schwarz (Zone
II) bis gerade noch gezeichnetem Weiß (Zone VII) mit 5 Blendenstufen im
Film abgezeichnet werden.
Wenn ich jetzt einen
wolkenverhangenen Tag habe mit 1-2 Blenden Motivkontrast statt 5, so
pushe ich mit N+2 (pro N zwei ca. Blendenstufen!), um den Motivkontrast
auf dem Film auf ca. 5-6 Blendenstufen zu spreizen.
ich Wolken mit blauem Himmel und Schatten habe (das Bild von Sebastian
im Treppenhaus), so liegen ca. 10 Blenden Motivkontrast vor, die ich
mit einem N-2 Pull (kürzer entwickeln) auf 5-6 Blenden komprimiere.
Bei diesigem Wetter -wie oben- würden die dünnen Negative zu flach werden.
bitte bewusst machen, dass gerade jetzt bei viel
Sonnenschein/Motivkontrast die dünnen Negative (Pull) zufällig (!) sehr
We want negatives that reveal shadow detail where we want it and retain highlights so they are not blown out without details.
In shadow areas, we want to see light detail. If that area of the negative is clear or too light, then we underexposed the film. If it is too dark, then we overexposed.
In highlight areas, we want the negative to be dark, but you should be able to read a newspaper through them. If they are too dark and thick, then you overdeveloped your film. If they are thin and too light, then you underdeveloped your film.
Expose for your shadows and develop for your highlights. Shadow details develop and form very quickly during development and highlight values continue to develop out over time.
Exposure determines shadow details. This is why it is so important to know the proper EI (exposure index) of your film.
If you are getting poor shadow detail results, then you are rating your film wrong.
Development determines highlights and overall contrast of your negative. Your highlights should be denser than your shadow areas on your negative, but still transparent enough to reveal details. This is why the old trick of testing your highlights with newsprint is so effective.
Not enough agitation or a very smooth and evenly agitation often leads to streaks on the negative while developing.
It is important to quickly fill in the developer and agitate at the beginning, especiallyto loosen any air bubbles on the film.
You get the blacks faster if you agitate more often („more contrast“). If you agitate less it may be you have to lengthen your developing time also.
Dev time less than 5 min= agitate every 30 sec
Dev time 5 to 10 min= agitate every 60 sec
Dev time > 10 min= agitate the first 10 min every 60 sec, than every 120 sec
30 sec continous agitation at the start
15% less time needed than the Agfa agitation rhythm.
You loose some film sensitivity, so expose about half a stop more.
You loose sharpness, so use it for medium to large format, not for 35mm.
You get fine grain
You need much less chemicals
If you want to change contrast of the film, as it is often needed:
Less contrast (e.g. x-ray, technical film) : more exposure (about one stop) and less dev time, less agitation (especially with x ray films)
Difficulty: This films are usually low iso and need even longer exposures
More contrast (e.g. foggy scenes): less exposure (n-1 or n-2) and longer dev time, more agitation
Difficulty: This are often cloudy and foggy scenes we tend to expose more.
I recommend either a 35 mm or a 120 mm as a starting point.
35 mm film gives you 36 images, the negs are 35×24 mm. They have to be really enlarged for prints, so the quality of the camera optics are crucial.
I like the 120 mm format. The negatives are bigger, 6×6 cm, 6×7 cm or even 6×8 cm., you only get about 9-12 frames (depends on the format of your camera). So you will see your results more often and can adapt your technique faster. And due to not so much enlargement the camera optic is not that critical.
Of course tere are other formats, but as a beginner – stay away.
If you are going cheap there are lots of old „folders“ out there, but you can get rangefinders up to Leicas, Hasselblads SLRs, and many more.
I would start with a single lens folder, 120 mm film, for about 50 Euros or so, than go on as the need arises.
Then there is the question what you are going to shoot filmwise.
If you develop yourself, go to black&white. Here you do not have to be very precise with your exposure, it is cheap and a very tolerant playground. Development is fun and the tools are easy to get.
If you will do lab developing, use colour or transparency film, due to the Standart Processes E6 or C41 development is cheap, available (check first), mail order is possible. Home development is no problem but – not yet for a beginner.
Read your theorie about aperture and shutter speed, know your ISO. Read about depth of field.
Go on youtube and look how to load your film in the camera, better still, look for a mentor. It looks easy, but sometimes a film is lost by putting it in the camera in a faulty way. Keep your first spoiled film or dedicate a film for training.
Get a light meter, or an app for your cellphone. It will be ok for starters. If you are shooting b&W you can get away with the sunny sixteen rule (look in my blog)
And now – shoot your film. Film is in Camera is ready Lightmeter reading shows e.g. aperture 11, shutter speed 125 aperture is set shutter speed is set shutter is cocked (if needed) distance is dialed in
shoot – and transport your film to the next frame !
Look how to take the film out of your camera when all frames are done. Like putting the film in this step depends on film format and camera.
35mm films are reeled back in the metal cassette
120 mm films are reeled further on on the recipient spool and than taken out.
You load the film in daylight, reel it in, cut it all in the tank.
Using 200 ml of developer and fixer for a film.
I get great results using the times for 1 minute agitation and taking 15% off.
If the tank is leaking usually you have to reseal the thermometer plug, it is really easy to diy.
I am impressed how easy you develop a roll without any darkroom or bag.
You invest in a camera, film, developing and scanning/printing to get an unsharp image.
But – it is fun. The unpredictability makes it very interesting.
The first things I learned:
Measure. Or play.
No sunny sixteen with these apertures for me. Be aware of the reciprocity of your film. Fomapan 100 is no fun here. E.g. Ilford Delta 100 is a lot more easy.
Get closer. Closer. Even more close. Closer! (From Andrew Bartram)
Use a tripod.
Trick your shutter. (e.g. finger cover the shutter, open shutter, exposure, fingers cover the shutter, close shutter) to avoid movement if exposure is less than 10 seconds.
Look for contrasty scenes.
The sun is your friend.
Relax. It is not sharp. It is ok 😉
Tips from Neil Piper (neilpiper.com): „ One of things that draws people to pinhole photography is the ‘infinite depth of field’ that the medium is able to capture. A lot of people assume that everything in the composition, from the pinhole to infinity will be sharp. The general consensus is that if you have the optimum sized pinhole for your cameras focal length, then everything from 20 x your cameras focal length should have reasonable sharpness. For instance. A pinhole camera, focal length is 50mm. Most online calculators will tell you that the optimum pinhole size for 50mm is around 0.3mm, give or take a few 0.01mms.
Your camera now has the optimum sized pinhole for its 50mm focal length and so the maths says that everything more than 1000mm away from the pinhole (50mm focal length multiplied by 20) should be of optimum sharpness. “