Cameras – pinhole

Here are links to available cameras I know of:

The RSS 6x6F is very similar to the dual pinhole 6×6. The differences being the 6x6F has only one central pinhole, a long focal length (24mm) and a built in 52mm filter ring for attaching filters

Flat film plane with pinhole to film distance (focal length) of 24mm.

56.2 x56.2mm square image area  – 12 shots per roll on 120 film.

Angle of view: 99 degrees horizontal, 99 degrees vertical.

Laser drilled 150 micron (0.15mm) pinhole (f/160). Pinhole material thickness = 50 microns (.002″).

RealitySoSubtle 4×5″

The RealitySoSubtle 4×5 is an ultra-wide angle pinhole camera. It’s a sturdy and rugged camera that has some great features not found on other pinhole cameras. Features include:

  •  0.2mm precision laser drilled pinholes, 35mm focal length. Aperture = ff/175 Pinhole material thickness = 50 microns (.002″).
  • 3 separate pinholes and independant magnetic shutters. One central and 2 ‘rise’ pinholes for fun perspective effects (both offset 31mm from centre).

Ondu 6×12 Multifomat

Focal length: 40mm, Pinhole diameter: 0,3mm, f stop equivalent: 133

Developer – Rodinal diy


I found this (still untested by me) receipt :

Acetaminophen 30 x 500mg tablets Sodium Sulfite (anhydrous)
Sodium Hydroxide (anhydrous)20g
Mixing Instructions: 
Add chemicals in specified sequence.
Dilution: as Rodinal.
Usage: as Rodinal.
Notes: Keep crystals from bottom of container with liquid when decanting.
Stir before drawing off concentrate for dilution.
Use within 30 mins of dilution.

Please note that this formula has a maximum shelf life of 90 days.

This information was kindly provided by Donald Qualls.

Developer – Pyro 510

Here is a summary of collected wisdom about this developer….

I’ve had quite dense negatives with     HP5+     and 510.
At 1:100 and 6.5 minutes, I’m getting a normal looking curve and printing on 2 1/2
I think Jay was using constant agitation and getting 6 minute sorts of times.
 I was using 30 second agitations and shooting at 320, incident.

You must use an alkalic or neutral PH  fixer with pyro

Kein Stoppbad oder sauren Fixierer für Pyro-Entwickler!!!
Sonst wird der Stain rausgelöst und der Feinstkorneffekt geht verloren.
Intensiv Wässern (min. 3x) und neutralen oder alkalischen Fixierer.
Z.B. den hier oder Selbstansatz

You get the chemicals here

Herstellung: 100 ml Triethanolamin TEA 5 g Vitamin C 10 g Pyrogallol 0,375 g Phenidon
Alle Zutaten so lange im kalten TEA rühren bis keinerlei Klümpchen mehr da sind. Dann 30 Sekunden in die Mikrowelle, bis TEA 70-80 Grad hat. Nicht höher. Ggf. nachmal in 10s-Schritten rein. TEA wird dünnflüssig wie Wasser.  Solange rühren, bis sich alles aufgelöst hat. Wenn der Ansatz dabei kälter als 50° C wird, wieder 10-20 Sekunden Mikrowelle. Eine Nacht ruhen lassen. Fertig ist der Sirup, der ewig -minus 1 Tag hält.
!Achtung! Pyrogallol und Phenidon sind extrem gesundheitsschädlich.  Bei sachgemäßer Handhabung dampft bei 70-80°C davon nichts aus dem TEA aus. Alte Mikrowelle verwenden! Gibt es bei ebay ab 1€.
Feinwaage sollte 0.01 g können. ~ 15€

510-Pyro gives full film speed, or better, so if you normally derate
your film by one stop to ensure good shadow detail, you’ll probably
overexpose for development in 510-Pyro, which leads to dense shadows
and flat negs with normal development.
I recommend that you begin your testing by rating your film at box speed, and finding normal development time for that speed. You might still find that your shadows
are too dense, resulting in flat negs. If so, try increasing your EI by
1/3 stop until you get good blacks in your prints.

I standardize my development at 70F. Pyro developers harden the
emulsion of the film, making higher temps practical, and safe.“

Ganz zu Anfang schreibt Jay, das bei Verdünnung 1+ 100 die Zeiten von D76 für die meisten Filme übernommen werden können.

As a practical matter, I would consider 1:100 the optimum dilution for rotary processing, except in rare circumstances where a more concentrated developer is needed to build contrast rapidly, as in procesing J&C 400 for printing on Azo G2 Canadian paper, or some of the self masking UV processes, where a 1:50 dilution might be more convenient.
To calculate the development time for a 1:50 dilution from the development time for the 1:100 dilution, simply divide by 2.
For those developing roll films in tanks using intermittent inversion agitation, to find the development time for a 1:200 dilution, simply multiply 1:100 time by 2.

I find 1:300-1:500 dilutions best suited to reduced agitation development, and an increase of 20-25% adequate to compensate for the difference between rotary agitation and semi-stand development.

So, if you’re getting appropriate contrast with 8min of rotary development in the 1:100 dilution, but want to see what difference reduced agitation might make, figure 8min X 5 for the 1:500 dilution for 40min., + 25% for reduced agitation for a total development time of 50min for semi-stand development. If 50 min. is more time than you want to dedicate to your experiment, use the 1:300 dilution for 8X3+25%, or 30min.

These calculations are generally accurate, but will vary with class of film, water quality, and other variables, so individual testing is recommended.“

For graded paper, 6min, 30 seconds should be close.
 For variable contrast paper, seven minutes or a little longer might be better unless you prefer to increase the contrast filtration on your enlarger to 3.5 or more.
 I have recently tried semi stand development with great results- 1:500 for aobut 45 minutes with three gentle agitations.“

510-Pyro is unique in many ways, not least of which being the fact that it is a single-solution pyro developer. Some formulators of two-solution staining developers have commented that single solution developers are less versatile than two-solution developers, and that single solution developers don’t respond to dilution in a linear way, but neither of these claims are true for 510-Pyro.

The standard dilution of 510-Pyro is 1:100, which gives development times similar to D-76 with most films, but it can be diluted anywhere between 1:50 and 1:500 with very predictable behavior.

Once a development time is optimized for the standard dilution, it is a simple matter to determine a development time for any other dilution. Generally, when calculating a development factor for a developer dilution, an allowance is made for developer oxidation, which varies with development technique; rotary development oxidises a developer more than semi-stand development does, etc..

In practice, one would not use the same dilution for rotary processing as for semi-stand development, so the differences in oxidation are practically insignificant in that case, and it is only when using different dilutions with a common development technique that oxidation plays a role, and even then, the factor is a minor one, and can usually be ignored with 510-Pyro.

As a practical matter, I would consider 1:100 the optimum dilution for rotary processing, except in rare circumstances where a more concentrated developer is needed to build contrast rapidly, as in procesing J&C 400 for printing on Azo G2 Canadian paper, or some of the self masking UV processes, where a 1:50 dilution might be more convenient. To calculate the development time for a 1:50 dilution from the development time for the 1:100 dilution, simply divide by 2.

For those developing roll films in tanks using intermittent inversion agitation, to find the development time for a 1:200 dilution, simply multiply 1:100 time by 2. I find 1:300-1:500 dilutions best suited to reduced agitation development, and an increase of 20-25% adequate to compensate for the difference between rotary agitation and semi-stand development.

So, if you’re getting appropriate contrast with 8min of rotary development in the 1:100 dilution, but want to see what difference reduced agitation might make, figure 8min X 5 for the 1:500 dilution for 40min., + 25% for reduced agitation for a total development time of 50min for semi-stand development.

If 50 min. is more time than you want to dedicate to your experiment, use the 1:300 dilution for 8X3+25%, or 30min. These calculations are generally accurate, but will vary with class of film, water quality, and other variables, so individual testing is recommended.

These variations in dilution and agitation will allow one to process a wide variety of films, to any contrast of which the film is capable, with a range of local contrast, grain and tonalities to suit any creative end, by any processing technique one chooses, without resorting to reformulating one’s developer by modifying the ratios of the A and B solutions, along with dilution, etc., etc., which makes testing an order of magnitude more complex. Having formulated my own two-solution developers, I speak from experience.

510-Pyro is very easy to use, predictable and consistent in its behavior over a wide range of dilutions and processing techniques, despite what the experts might say.

Stand development

This is a popular way of using 510-Pyro, especially when you are either not sure of a developing time for your film or you are wanting a fair degree of compensation of the highlights. The best way I’ve found of using 510 as a stand developer is to dilute the developer in a ratio of 1 to 300 and use it at 24 degrees C. After adding the developer to the tank (no pre-soak) agitate gently for one minute, then let it stand in a 24 deg. C bath until the nine minute point. Agitate again for one minute and let stand for the rest of the time. That’s it! Pour out the developer at 20 minutes and stop with a couple of thirty second water baths, fix with an alkaline fixer.


Stand develop at 24 degrees C

No presoak needed

Agitate for first minute

Agitate again at the nine minute point

Water stop bath at 20 minutes

Alkaline fix


TEA 70ml

Ascorbic Acid 5g

Pyrogallol     10g

Phenidone     0.25g

TEA to         100ml

I began field testing with the intention of fine tuning the developer as indicated by my results. Occasionally, over the last seven years, I’ve been inspired to make a change to 510-Pyro, but testing has always dashed my hopes for an improvement, probably due largely to the fact that my facilities have not been improved, so my work is limited to the same degree of precision it was when I formulated the developer. In the meantime I’ve learned a lot about this developer, often from other users, and I hope to learn more. 


800ml of Triethanolamine heated to 160f.

Add 100g pyrogallic acid,

50g ascorbic acid,

3.75g phenidone..

top off to 1 liter with triethanolamine.

Stir to dissolve, cool & bottle

Developer – Adox FX39 (german)


NEU: Ab sofort liefern wir TYP II mit verbesserter Haltbarkeit aus. FX-39 kann jetzt auch bei niedrigeren Temperaturen unproblematisch transportiert werden.
FX-39 ist eine Legende. Geoffrey Crawley hat 40 Jahre lang die unterschiedlichsten Rezepturen nachgestellt und weiter entwickelt, um dann in der Blütezeit der analogen Fotografie dieses Meisterstück abzuliefern.
FX-39 basiert auf Willi Beutlers Neofin Rot, wurde aber in allen Parametern verbessert. FX-39 wirkt ausgleichend, arbeitet sehr detailreich und scharf mit hervorragender Auflösung und nutzt die Filmempfindlichkeit sehr gut aus. Die Ausgleichswirkung ist über die Verdünnung über einen sehr weiten Bereich hervorragend steuerbar und kann auf den Motivkontrast und verwendeten Filmtyp exakt abgestimmt werden.
In seiner Funktion als Ausgleichsentwickler begrenzt der FX-39 die Dichte in den Lichtern (Schwärzung) etwas.
Bei einem normalen, nicht ausgleichend arbeitenden Filmentwickler zeigt die Schwärzungskurve im Idealfall einen linearen Verlauf über alle Zonen mit voller Dichte / Schwärzung auch in den Lichterzonen. Dies kann jedoch insbesondere bei höheren Motivkontrasten problematisch werden: Es besteht die Gefahr, dass die Lichter zu dicht werden, weil die Schwärzung auf dem Film zu stark ausfällt. Die Lichter wirken „ausgebrannt“, sie haben keine Zeichnung mehr.

Diesem Problem vorzubeugen ist die Aufgabe eines Ausgleichsentwicklers wie dem Adox FX-39. Er begrenzt die Schwärzung / Dichte in den Lichtern etwas: Die Schwärzungskurve verläuft in den Lichterzonen VIII, IX und X flacher, und somit können auch höhere Motivkontraste besser bewältigt werden.  Wie stark diese Abflachung ausfällt, ist einmal vom Filmtyp, aber auch von der Verdünnung des FX-39 abhängig. Der große Vorteil des Adox FX-39 ist es, dass die Ausgleichswirkung sehr gut und präzise über die Verdünnung über einen sehr großen Bereich gesteuert werden kann. Dadurch ist auch eine sehr gute Anpassung auf die unterschiedlichen Filmtypen möglich.

In der Standardverdünnung von 1+9 ist die Ausgleichswirkung bei den meisten Filmen recht moderat.
Falls jedoch ein stärkerer Kontrastausgleich mit noch deutlich ausgeprägterer Abflachung der Schwärzungskurve bei sehr hohen Motivkontrasten erforderlich ist, kann FX-39 dementsprechend auch stärker verdünnt werden, beispielsweise in den Verhältnissen 1+12, 1+13, 1+14.
 Für extrem hohe Motivkontraste kann bis zu 1+19 verdünnt werden, die Ausgleichswirkung ist dann sehr stark ausgeprägt. Zu berücksichtigen ist jedoch, dass man in diesem Bereich der sehr starken Verdünnung und Ausgleichswirkung ca. 1/3 bis 2/3 Blendenstufen an effektiver Empfindlichkeit verliert.

Dank der hervorragenden Flexibilität des Adox FX-39 funktioniert die Modifikation der Schwärzungskurve jedoch auch in die andere Richtung: Ist keine Ausgleichswirkung gewünscht bzw. erforderlich, sondern eine normal linear verlaufende Schwärzungskurve, kann die Arbeitslösung einfach weniger stark verdünnt und konzentrierter angesetzt werden: Statt 1+9 beispielsweise 1+6 oder 1+7.
Es gibt im Grunde nur noch einen Grund nicht ausschließlich mit FX-39 zu arbeiten und das ist Feinstkörnigkeit.
Wer streng nur auf Feinstkörnigkeit achtet, der bekommt mit Feinstkornentwicklern wie ADOX ATOMAL ein feineres Korn.
Adox FX-39 harmoniert insbesondere hervorragend mit allen niedrig- und mittelempfindlichen Filmen.
In der ISO 400/27° Klasse zeigt FX-39 mit Kodak Tri-X, T-Max 400, Ilford Delta 400 und Neopan 400 die besten Ergebnisse.
Bei Bedarf kann FX-39 auch zur empfindlichkeitssteigernden Entwicklung um eine Blendenstufe eingesetzt werden (Verdoppelung der Nennempfindlichkeit).

ADOX hat diesen Entwickler seit 2004 für Paterson produziert.
Geoffrey Crawley war persönlich zu Lebzeiten hier und hat geholfen die Rezeptur zu übertragen.

Technische Daten:
100ml und 500ml Entwicklerkonzentrat.
Standard-Verdünnung: 1+9 “one-shot” Anwendung (Einmalentwickler).
Sehr hohe Verdünnung: 1+19 ”one-shot” Anwendung (Einmalentwickler) zur Erhöhung der Ausgleichsfähigkeit bei Verlängerung der Entwicklungszeit um ca. 75%. Hierbei sinkt die Empfindlichkeitsausnutzung etwas. Sie können also in Grenzen Empfindlichkeit gegen Ausgleichsvermögen “tauschen”.



Developer – Tetenal Ultrafin T plus (german)

Die Ultrafin Plus Formel wurde verbessert, der Neue ist jetzt noch besser abgestimmt auf die modernen T-Grain Filme, wie z.B. Kodak T-Max und Ilford Delta – visualisiert durch das zusätzliche „T“ in der Produktbezeichnung. Gleichwohl können auch alle konventionelle S/W Filme in Ultrafin T-Plus perfekt entwickelt werden, insbesondere niedrig und mittelempfindliche Filme.

Produkteigenschaften und Vorteile:
• Für alle S/W Filme, ideal für T-Grain Filme
• Besondere Feinkörnigkeit
• Effektive Ausnutzung der Filmempfindlichkeit
• Beeindruckende Tonwertreproduktion
• Einfache Anwendung
• Hohe Ergiebigkeit
• Sehr gute Lagerungseigenschaften
• Verdünnung: 1+4
• Temperatur: 20°C
• Kapazität: max. 30 Filme 135-36

Ultrafin T-Plus arbeitet besonders feinkörnig und nutzt die fabrikatorische Empfindlichkeit der Filme voll aus. Ein großes Plus – im wahrsten Sinne des Produktnamens – ist die ausgeprägte Differenzierung der Schattenbereiche und damit eine beeindruckende Tonwertreproduktion. Die Gebrauchsanweisung inklusive der Entwicklungszeiten befindet sich auf einem 3-seitigen Peeletikett auf der Vorderseite der Flasche, die Sicherheitshinweise sind auf der Flaschenrückseite zu finden, ebenfalls auf einem 3-seitigen Peeletikett.
Ultrafin T-Plus mit 30 s Kipprhythmus mit einem Beta von 0,65.
Dabei wird die Entwicklungsdose in den ersten 30 Sekunden ständig bewegt, anschließend alle 30 Sekunden 1 x gekippt

Film – Kodak Imagelink HQ SP615 LE 500 Microfilm

I got this Microfilm in a 10m roll, expired 2008.

I rated it 25 ASA, put it through my Minolta 16 and  developed in Tetenal Ultrafin 1:10 for 8 minutes, 21 degrees C, no inversions, due to the old tank just every minute 3 rotations.

Stop 2 min water

Ilford rapifix for 6 minutes.

A good guess, the film came out rather contrasty but very sharp and with fine grain.

A try with developing in Pyro510  1:300, 20C, 20min gave me better results.

Other fellows described their results:

I’ve developed Imagelink HQ shot at EI 50 in HC-110 Dilution G, semi-stand for (IIRC) 22 minutes at 68 F,
 and in Caffenol LC for 20 minutes at 68 F with agitation ten seconds every minute;
 both give good results.

This film can also be developed in Diafine, with Bath A diluted 1:50, with EI 50 to 80.

The specs of the film are here:

Printing – Splitgrade

  • Start with a test strip at grade 2.5, right in the middle of the contrast range.
  • The test strip is then exposed in a series of steps.
  • Choose a step on the test strip that has some black areas as well as some detail in the light parts of your image. It’s usually best to go slighter darker if in doubt as to which step to choose.
  • Take the time for the selected step and divide by 2, for example if the 30 second step looks about right this will give you 15 seconds.
  • Do another test strip using this 15 seconds at grade 0 and 15 seconds at grade 5. 
  • In simple terms, the grade 0 low contrast exposure gives you control of the light grey areas in your print. To add more detail in these ‘highlights’ increase the grade 0 exposure time. 
  • To increase the overall print contrast increase the grade to 0.5, 1, 1.5 or 2. Be careful to avoid having white patches with no detail in your print. If this happens reduce the contrast again. Obviously if your print looks dull and without any bright areas (assuming it should have bright areas!) then decrease the exposure times until you see some.
  • The high contrast exposure gives you control of the blacks and shadows. Increase this time until you see good blacks or decrease it until you can see some details in the shadows without completely losing your blacks. Be careful not to reduce your blacks to dark grey or your print will look low contrast! I always use grade 5 for the high contrast exposure.

For each exposure you can change the time and grade used giving you an almost infinite variety of possibilities. You can also dodge (selectively reduce the exposure of) parts of the image during each of these 2 basic exposures:

  • To increase shadow detail and separation of the tones in these darker areas dodge these areas during the low contrast exposure.
  • Another way to increase shadow detail is to reduce the grade 5 exposure.
  • To give highlights subtle detail when they appear slightly over printed then dodge these during the low contrast exposure.
  • If highlight (lightest) areas appear flat this is because the contrast is too low or the exposure is too long. Increase the grade or reduce the exposure used for the low contrast exposure.
  • If it is difficult to put detail into the highlights using burning-in then reduce the grade used towards 0 for the basic low contrast exposure and maybe increase the time as well. Be careful not to reduce the overall impact of the print as you do this.
  • If the print needs more contrast increase the grade 5 exposure time, reduce the low contrast time or increase the low contrast grade.

 I also quite often make the foreground more contrasty by dodging the low contrast exposure for this area. I don’t want the viewer of my images to just look straight beyond the foreground to the main centre of interest. The whole picture sits on the foreground and increasing the contrast here gives it a prominent position in the final print.

Camera – Minolta 16 and Kiev

I got an Minolta 16 and a Kiev 30.

I found that the film cassettes are not compatible, the spool transport hole diameters are quite different.

The Kiev 30 is a sturdy fully manual model.

The lens is sharp and can be focussed. Shutter speed 30,60 and 200 as well as aperture can be selected.

No batterie needed.

The cassettes have a nice feature, there is an notch so you do not need tape to fix the film when self loading.

The Minolta comes in several models, the first ones use a slightly smaller picture and perforated film, the MG I got exposes a larger pic and is best used with non perforated film.

I got the Kodak Imagelink HQ microfilm cheap as bulk film and loaded my cassette with this one.

The camera has a light meter (I put in a modern lithium 1.5V cell, knowing the voltage will not be stable compared to the intended 1.35V cell which is no more available).

I use B/W film only, so I think I can get away with this.

The lens is fix focus, infinity sharpness you get at about aperture 8, the automatic mode seems to work nice.

Reloading was pretty simple, you have to cut the right lenght of film, roll it tight and put it in the smaller container of the cassette, let a bit go out throught the slot, close the lid. I take the cassette out of my darkbag now and tape the container shut. Then in daylight I tape the film end to the receiving spool, put this in, close the lid and tape it shut also. (When removing the cassette from the camera it will open if you don´t tape!)

I develop in an old 16mm bakelit tank or use a modified diy jobo reel.

More infos:

of course look hereand please donate:

Developer – Pota


(An alternative to Kodak Technidol developer for Kodak Technical Pan film (or other technical films ).  This formula is useful for other emulsions where very low contrast is desired.  Agitation with TPF is two slow inversions of the tank each minute. Develop between 12.5 and 15 minutes. at 68 F)

Keine Fotobeschreibung verfügbar.

Water at 125 F————300 mL

Sodium Sulfite————-30 g

Phenidone—————–1.5 g

Water to make ————–1 Liter  Use cold distilled water

Use immediately after mixing as it deteriorates very quickly after it has been mixed.

This developer was disclosed by Marilyn Levy in „Wide Latitude Photography,“ Photographic Science and Engineering v. 11 p. 46 (1967). It grew out of her researches into the problem of capturing wide variances in luminance (i.e., a long gray scale) on hard, thin, high-resolution films. This formula was devised for solving problems associated with high-altitude aero reconnaissance and mapping. Levy worked at the US Navy’s Photo-Optics Technical Area at Ft. Monmouth, New Jersey, and her formula has been published elsewhere as „POTA.“ Gives images similar to Bluefire HR developer but at significantly lower effective film speed.

Use water heated to 55° (130°F). Mix the chemicals in the order shown, and be sure the sulfite is completely dissolved before adding the phenidone.

This developer begins to oxidize as soon as it is mixed, so mix it just before use. Designed for developing sheet films processed in trays with brush agitation, but works well in small tanks. Experiment with agitation technique as well as time and temperature if your initial results seem streaked or mottled.


– Er schafft es 15 bis 20 Blendenstufen zu komprimieren, ohne dass die Schatten und mittleren Töne zu kontrastarm werden.

Man kann mit ihm Mikrofilme (CMS 20II) und andere technische Firme (Strichfilme) so entwickeln, dass sie für die normale Fotografie einsetzbar sind.

Der Entwickler muss frisch angesetzt sein, er hält nicht lange.

Einmal angesetzt kann man aber damit in 1-2 Stunden beliebig viele Filme entwickeln.

Interessant ist der Entwickler auch für Grafik Arts Film (Strichfilm) für die GF-Fotografie, wie beispielsweise dieser hier…/Alliance%20Camera%20CE%20Tec… oder andere Ortho- und Luftbildfilme

Phenidon löst sich relativ schlecht in 50°C Wasser. Anschließend durch Teefilter/Kaffeefilter, sonst gibt es schwarze Punkte.

Rüdiger Hartung gab mir in den Kommentaren noch folgende Tips :

Es ist vorteilhaft, wenn man vorab eine 4% Lösung von Phenidon in 1,2-Propandiol (1,2-Propylenglycol) herstellt und damit entsprechend dosiert. Damit fällt die Dosierung leichter und das Löslichkeitsproblem wird elimiert.

2. Da POTA nur sehr schwach alkalisch ist, wird die Lichthofschutzschicht oft nicht vollständig entfernt. Es entstehen Schlieren und Wolken.
Abhilfe: Vorwässern mit 2% Waschsodalösung.
Danach und vor der Entwicklung mit Wasser sehr gut klar spülen, um den pH wieder abzusenken.

POTA, consists of only 2 compounds, and is easy to make yourself.  Anchell & Troop state that „POTA-type developers produce exceptionally even density growth over their useful range but have an abrupt shoulder after 8 zones. No further highlight detail is available above that point.“ 

The original objective was to use POTA to test TechPan .

The formula for POTA does remind of D-23 in the sense that it is a 2-compound developer.
The components to make 1 liter of POTA:

  • Sodium Sulfite Anhydrous – 30 g
  • Phenidone 1.5g
  • Dissolve the dry chemicals in 750 ml water at 35°C, then add water to make 1 liter.  Not all of the Phenidone will dissolve, but don’t worry about it.

Use the POTA developer as soon as the temperature cools to 24°C.  The developer oxidizes quickly after mixing, and typically it’s recommend that you use it within an hour. 

You canweigh out the dry ingredients for each 1 liter batch and put them in a ziplock bag so that you can mix them when needed. 

50 g of Phenidone is $12, and 1 lb of Sodium Sulfite is $6.50.  That’s enough to make 33 liters of developer, which would develop up to 132 rolls of film, for a cost per roll of less than 15 cents. 

Anchell and Troop also provide another formula for a low-contrast developer called TDLC-103:

  • Metol – 1g
  • Sodium sulfite – 5g
  • Sodium Bicarbonate (baking soda) – 10g
  • dissolve to make 1 liter

POTA Development TIMES (all at 24°C)

Kodak Technical Pan – 12 minutes

Eastman 5363 – 12 minutes

Kodak 2378 – 11 minutes

Kodalith Ortho Type 3  – 11 minutes

Logbook – Film Development

Always there is the question how development variables affect our negatives.

It is nearly impossible to foresee all effects, so you should make notes of your parameters, change them one at a time and work precisely.

Remember :

Increase contrast

with temperature up,
with time up,

but beware : less sharpness may result and the highlights and shadows may suffer.

with agitation up
with concentration up

but beware : grain may become pronounced (e.g. Rodinal 1:25)

This is just an handbook of notes from me and others.


No info about grain, I just got a negative with printable density.
Agitation is 30 secs continous and than every 1 min 3 inversions 

A few lab links :

Adox CMS 20 II AND Rodinal 

I was not happy with the excessive contrast and near total lack of mid-range tones when I used CMS 20 the first time a year or two ago. 

I figured that Rodinal is really the most versatile chemical.
What I did with this most recent roll was expose it at 6 ISO (it’s box speed is 20kk, but who believes that). 
 6 seems right for my tastes. 
I diluted the Rodinal to 1+200 … approximately ‚
Didn’t pay attention to temperature. 20 minutes semi-stand 
(1 minute of agitation at the beginning; 1 minute at the 10 minute mark).

Acros 100
Exposed 100, dev Ultrafin tetenal, 1:20, 4 min, 1 min Inversion, good result

Fomapan 100 120 film (50 ISO Speed in Tests)
Tetenal ultrafin 1:30, 10 min, 21 C 
                          1:20, 7,5 min 20°C
                          1:20, 4,5 min, 20C, continuous agitation 
Pyro 510: @ 50 ISO,  1:100, 8 min 20C


Rodinal 1:100 1 hour Stand 

sheet film : Rodinal 1:50,  @50 ISO, 10 min

Rodinal 1+50 less grainy, 1+100more contrasty

Rodinal 1+100, @100, 20°C, 12 min, 
Rodinal 1+50,   @100, 20°C,   6 min

Rodinal  Agfa Agitation
N -1  @50,   1:25. 4:30 
N.     @80.   1:25. 6:00
N+1. @100, 1:25 8:00

Schwarzschild: 1/2 Sec. 1 stop
1. Sec. 2 stops
2-10Sec. 3 stops 

N-1 1:50. 9 Min
N.   1:50 12 Min 

Foma 100 @3200
DD-x @30°C 7.5 Minuten
Foma 100 HC110  6 min solution B 21 C

Fomapan 400 120 film :
Exposed as 320, developed in R09 1:50, inversion every 30 sec, good results


Fomapan 200. medium format 120
Expose for 100 to 160, R09 rotation, 7:30 min 1:50
Fomapan 200, 18×24
Exposed 160 ISO,  R09 1:50, rotation, 6:30 min, maybe 7:00 is enought

Ilford Delta 3200
exposed 1600 pinhole, dev Ultrafin Tetenal, 1:10, 11min, 1 min Inversion, good result

Ilford FP4+ 120
Exposed as 100, developed in R09 1:50, inversion every 30 sec, good results

a friend wrote this: 
„FP4+ (@ 80 ASA) in Rodinal, 1+50, 12:00 Min. (19,5 Grad, Bewegung: In den ersten 60 Sek. permanent, dann alle 30 Sekunden ein vollständiger Kipp).
Zur Entwicklung in Rodinal: Bekannterweise arbeitet Rodinal schärfer, akzentuiert aber das Korn. Während das bei MF keine (grosse) Rolle spielt, sieht man das Korn eines KB-Negativs deutlicher (was m.E. bei manchen Motiven durchaus seinen Reiz hat). Die Geschichte, dass Rodinal brutal körnig arbeitet, stimmt so nicht und hat ihren Grund in der häufig fehlerhaften Verarbeitung. In Rodinal gebadete Filme kommen sehr schön, aber immer l a n g s a m kippen und niemals 20 (oder gar mehr) Grad, besser 19 bis 19,5 Grad.
Meine Entwicklungszeiten sind ca. 20 Prozent kürzer als die Waschzettelangaben, aber ich belichte den FP4+ nicht auf Nennempfindlichkeit (die er übrigens ohnehin nicht bringt!).“ 

In an old Leica M3 DS (build 1956) I shot the
Ilford HP4 125.
I used the sunny sixteen rule, my light meter forgotten.

Dev time 10.15 in 1+9 spürsinn P3 gave nice negatives.
I agitated the first 30 seconds and then every min 3 times. Temp 20 degrees.
Fixing for 14 min spürsinn 6und5

Ilford FP5+  400
Exposed 400, developed Rodinal 1:25, 1min Inversion, 5.15 min, good result

Exposed 400, developed Spürsinn Joe 1:7, 1min Inversion, 11.45 min, good result


Exposed 400, developed Ultrafin Tetenal 1:20, 1min Inversion, 8 min, a little thin 

Kodak Tmax 100
Exposed 100, developed Ultrafin tetenal 1:20, 11.15 min, 1min Inversion, good result

Kodak Tmax 400
Exposed 400, developed Spürsinn Joe 1:6 10.15 min, 60 sec inv, good result


Rollei 80S

Exposed 80,  pinhole, dev Ultrafin Tetenal 1:20, 10 min, 1 min Inversion, good result


Delta 400 and generally Ilford Films in D76 are good
Streetpan 400 is real 400, loves bright sunlight, Rodinal
Delta 3200  ca 1600 ISO
Retro400 S is 200 ISO und yellow filter gives black sky
HP5 to 1600 (TriX curls to much) super good.

FP4 to 200 is good
Tmax Dev is good compensating dev for pushing

Ilford microphen is good for HP5
Diafine is great for pushing every film. 3min per solution, light inversion, eg stir, never let B contaminate A!, lasts forever.

Pushing to increase contrast, pull for ethereal look