Printing – Splitgrade

  • Start with a test strip at grade 2.5, right in the middle of the contrast range.
  • The test strip is then exposed in a series of steps.
  • Choose a step on the test strip that has some black areas as well as some detail in the light parts of your image. It’s usually best to go slighter darker if in doubt as to which step to choose.
  • Take the time for the selected step and divide by 2, for example if the 30 second step looks about right this will give you 15 seconds.
  • Do another test strip using this 15 seconds at grade 0 and 15 seconds at grade 5. 
  • In simple terms, the grade 0 low contrast exposure gives you control of the light grey areas in your print. To add more detail in these ‘highlights’ increase the grade 0 exposure time. 
  • To increase the overall print contrast increase the grade to 0.5, 1, 1.5 or 2. Be careful to avoid having white patches with no detail in your print. If this happens reduce the contrast again. Obviously if your print looks dull and without any bright areas (assuming it should have bright areas!) then decrease the exposure times until you see some.
  • The high contrast exposure gives you control of the blacks and shadows. Increase this time until you see good blacks or decrease it until you can see some details in the shadows without completely losing your blacks. Be careful not to reduce your blacks to dark grey or your print will look low contrast! I always use grade 5 for the high contrast exposure.

For each exposure you can change the time and grade used giving you an almost infinite variety of possibilities. You can also dodge (selectively reduce the exposure of) parts of the image during each of these 2 basic exposures:

  • To increase shadow detail and separation of the tones in these darker areas dodge these areas during the low contrast exposure.
  • Another way to increase shadow detail is to reduce the grade 5 exposure.
  • To give highlights subtle detail when they appear slightly over printed then dodge these during the low contrast exposure.
  • If highlight (lightest) areas appear flat this is because the contrast is too low or the exposure is too long. Increase the grade or reduce the exposure used for the low contrast exposure.
  • If it is difficult to put detail into the highlights using burning-in then reduce the grade used towards 0 for the basic low contrast exposure and maybe increase the time as well. Be careful not to reduce the overall impact of the print as you do this.
  • If the print needs more contrast increase the grade 5 exposure time, reduce the low contrast time or increase the low contrast grade.

 I also quite often make the foreground more contrasty by dodging the low contrast exposure for this area. I don’t want the viewer of my images to just look straight beyond the foreground to the main centre of interest. The whole picture sits on the foreground and increasing the contrast here gives it a prominent position in the final print.

Camera – Minolta 16 and Kiev

I got an Minolta 16 and a Kiev 30.

I found that the film cassettes are not compatible, the spool transport hole diameters are quite different.

The Kiev 30 is a sturdy fully manual model.

The lens is sharp and can be focussed. Shutter speed 30,60 and 200 as well as aperture can be selected.

No batterie needed.

The cassettes have a nice feature, there is an notch so you do not need tape to fix the film when self loading.

The Minolta comes in several models, the first ones use a slightly smaller picture and perforated film, the MG I got exposes a larger pic and is best used with non perforated film.

I got the Kodak Imagelink HQ microfilm cheap as bulk film and loaded my cassette with this one.

The camera has a light meter (I put in a modern lithium 1.5V cell, knowing the voltage will not be stable compared to the intended 1.35V cell which is no more available).

I use B/W film only, so I think I can get away with this.

The lens is fix focus, infinity sharpness you get at about aperture 8, the automatic mode seems to work nice.

Reloading was pretty simple, you have to cut the right lenght of film, roll it tight and put it in the smaller container of the cassette, let a bit go out throught the slot, close the lid. I take the cassette out of my darkbag now and tape the container shut. Then in daylight I tape the film end to the receiving spool, put this in, close the lid and tape it shut also. (When removing the cassette from the camera it will open if you don´t tape!)

I develop in an old 16mm bakelit tank or use a modified diy jobo reel.

More infos:

http://www.submin.com/16mm/manuals/minolta/
http://subclub.org/

of course look hereand please donate:

http://www.butkus.org/chinon/russian/kiev-30/kiev_30.htm

Developer – Pota

POTA DEVELOPER


(An alternative to Kodak Technidol developer for Kodak Technical Pan film (or other technical films ).  This formula is useful for other emulsions where very low contrast is desired.  Agitation with TPF is two slow inversions of the tank each minute. Develop between 12.5 and 15 minutes. at 68 F)

Keine Fotobeschreibung verfügbar.

Water at 125 F————300 mL

Sodium Sulfite————-30 g

Phenidone—————–1.5 g

Water to make ————–1 Liter  Use cold distilled water

Use immediately after mixing as it deteriorates very quickly after it has been mixed.

This developer was disclosed by Marilyn Levy in „Wide Latitude Photography,“ Photographic Science and Engineering v. 11 p. 46 (1967). It grew out of her researches into the problem of capturing wide variances in luminance (i.e., a long gray scale) on hard, thin, high-resolution films. This formula was devised for solving problems associated with high-altitude aero reconnaissance and mapping. Levy worked at the US Navy’s Photo-Optics Technical Area at Ft. Monmouth, New Jersey, and her formula has been published elsewhere as „POTA.“ Gives images similar to Bluefire HR developer but at significantly lower effective film speed.

Use water heated to 55° (130°F). Mix the chemicals in the order shown, and be sure the sulfite is completely dissolved before adding the phenidone.

This developer begins to oxidize as soon as it is mixed, so mix it just before use. Designed for developing sheet films processed in trays with brush agitation, but works well in small tanks. Experiment with agitation technique as well as time and temperature if your initial results seem streaked or mottled.

POTA-Entwickler

– Er schafft es 15 bis 20 Blendenstufen zu komprimieren, ohne dass die Schatten und mittleren Töne zu kontrastarm werden.

Man kann mit ihm Mikrofilme (CMS 20II) und andere technische Firme (Strichfilme) so entwickeln, dass sie für die normale Fotografie einsetzbar sind.

Der Entwickler muss frisch angesetzt sein, er hält nicht lange.

Einmal angesetzt kann man aber damit in 1-2 Stunden beliebig viele Filme entwickeln.

Interessant ist der Entwickler auch für Grafik Arts Film (Strichfilm) für die GF-Fotografie, wie beispielsweise dieser hier https://www.agfagraphics.com/…/Alliance%20Camera%20CE%20Tec… oder andere Ortho- und Luftbildfilme

Phenidon löst sich relativ schlecht in 50°C Wasser. Anschließend durch Teefilter/Kaffeefilter, sonst gibt es schwarze Punkte.

Rüdiger Hartung gab mir in den Kommentaren noch folgende Tips :

1.
Phenidon:
Es ist vorteilhaft, wenn man vorab eine 4% Lösung von Phenidon in 1,2-Propandiol (1,2-Propylenglycol) herstellt und damit entsprechend dosiert. Damit fällt die Dosierung leichter und das Löslichkeitsproblem wird elimiert.

2. Da POTA nur sehr schwach alkalisch ist, wird die Lichthofschutzschicht oft nicht vollständig entfernt. Es entstehen Schlieren und Wolken.
Abhilfe: Vorwässern mit 2% Waschsodalösung.
Danach und vor der Entwicklung mit Wasser sehr gut klar spülen, um den pH wieder abzusenken.

POTA, consists of only 2 compounds, and is easy to make yourself.  Anchell & Troop state that „POTA-type developers produce exceptionally even density growth over their useful range but have an abrupt shoulder after 8 zones. No further highlight detail is available above that point.“ 

The original objective was to use POTA to test TechPan .

The formula for POTA does remind of D-23 in the sense that it is a 2-compound developer.
The components to make 1 liter of POTA:

  • Sodium Sulfite Anhydrous – 30 g
  • Phenidone 1.5g
  • Dissolve the dry chemicals in 750 ml water at 35°C, then add water to make 1 liter.  Not all of the Phenidone will dissolve, but don’t worry about it.

Use the POTA developer as soon as the temperature cools to 24°C.  The developer oxidizes quickly after mixing, and typically it’s recommend that you use it within an hour. 

You canweigh out the dry ingredients for each 1 liter batch and put them in a ziplock bag so that you can mix them when needed. 

50 g of Phenidone is $12, and 1 lb of Sodium Sulfite is $6.50.  That’s enough to make 33 liters of developer, which would develop up to 132 rolls of film, for a cost per roll of less than 15 cents. 



Anchell and Troop also provide another formula for a low-contrast developer called TDLC-103:

  • Metol – 1g
  • Sodium sulfite – 5g
  • Sodium Bicarbonate (baking soda) – 10g
  • dissolve to make 1 liter

POTA Development TIMES (all at 24°C)

Kodak Technical Pan – 12 minutes

Eastman 5363 – 12 minutes

Kodak 2378 – 11 minutes

Kodalith Ortho Type 3  – 11 minutes

Logbook – Film Development

Always there is the question how development variables affect our negatives.

It is nearly impossible to foresee all effects, so you should make notes of your parameters, change them one at a time and work precisely.

Remember :

Increase contrast

with temperature up,
with time up,

but beware : less sharpness may result and the highlights and shadows may suffer.

with agitation up
with concentration up

but beware : grain may become pronounced (e.g. Rodinal 1:25)

This is just an handbook of notes from me and others.

 

No info about grain, I just got a negative with printable density.
Agitation is 30 secs continous and than every 1 min 3 inversions 

A few lab links :

 
 
Adox CMS 20 II AND Rodinal 
 

I was not happy with the excessive contrast and near total lack of mid-range tones when I used CMS 20 the first time a year or two ago. 

I figured that Rodinal is really the most versatile chemical.
What I did with this most recent roll was expose it at 6 ISO (it’s box speed is 20kk, but who believes that). 
 6 seems right for my tastes. 
I diluted the Rodinal to 1+200 … approximately ‚
Didn’t pay attention to temperature. 20 minutes semi-stand 
(1 minute of agitation at the beginning; 1 minute at the 10 minute mark).
 


Acros 100
Exposed 100, dev Ultrafin tetenal, 1:20, 4 min, 1 min Inversion, good result

Fomapan 100 120 film (50 ISO Speed in Tests)
Tetenal ultrafin 1:30, 10 min, 21 C 
                          1:20, 7,5 min 20°C
                          1:20, 4,5 min, 20C, continuous agitation 
Pyro 510: @ 50 ISO,  1:100, 8 min 20C

 

Rodinal 1:100 1 hour Stand 

sheet film : Rodinal 1:50,  @50 ISO, 10 min

Rodinal 1+50 less grainy, 1+100more contrasty

Rodinal 1+100, @100, 20°C, 12 min, 
Rodinal 1+50,   @100, 20°C,   6 min

Rodinal  Agfa Agitation
N -1  @50,   1:25. 4:30 
N.     @80.   1:25. 6:00
N+1. @100, 1:25 8:00

Schwarzschild: 1/2 Sec. 1 stop
1. Sec. 2 stops
2-10Sec. 3 stops 

N-1 1:50. 9 Min
N.   1:50 12 Min 

Foma 100 @3200
DD-x @30°C 7.5 Minuten
 

Fomapan 400 120 film :
Exposed as 320, developed in R09 1:50, inversion every 30 sec, good results

 

Fomapan 200. medium format 120
Expose for 100 to 160, R09 rotation, 7:30 min 1:50
 
Fomapan 200, 18×24
Exposed 160 ISO,  R09 1:50, rotation, 6:30 min, maybe 7:00 is enought
 

Ilford Delta 3200
exposed 1600 pinhole, dev Ultrafin Tetenal, 1:10, 11min, 1 min Inversion, good result

Ilford FP4+ 120
Exposed as 100, developed in R09 1:50, inversion every 30 sec, good results

a friend wrote this: 
„FP4+ (@ 80 ASA) in Rodinal, 1+50, 12:00 Min. (19,5 Grad, Bewegung: In den ersten 60 Sek. permanent, dann alle 30 Sekunden ein vollständiger Kipp).
Zur Entwicklung in Rodinal: Bekannterweise arbeitet Rodinal schärfer, akzentuiert aber das Korn. Während das bei MF keine (grosse) Rolle spielt, sieht man das Korn eines KB-Negativs deutlicher (was m.E. bei manchen Motiven durchaus seinen Reiz hat). Die Geschichte, dass Rodinal brutal körnig arbeitet, stimmt so nicht und hat ihren Grund in der häufig fehlerhaften Verarbeitung. In Rodinal gebadete Filme kommen sehr schön, aber immer l a n g s a m kippen und niemals 20 (oder gar mehr) Grad, besser 19 bis 19,5 Grad.
Meine Entwicklungszeiten sind ca. 20 Prozent kürzer als die Waschzettelangaben, aber ich belichte den FP4+ nicht auf Nennempfindlichkeit (die er übrigens ohnehin nicht bringt!).“ 

In an old Leica M3 DS (build 1956) I shot the
Ilford HP4 125.
I used the sunny sixteen rule, my light meter forgotten.

Dev time 10.15 in 1+9 spürsinn P3 gave nice negatives.
I agitated the first 30 seconds and then every min 3 times. Temp 20 degrees.
Fixing for 14 min spürsinn 6und5


Ilford FP5+  400
Exposed 400, developed Rodinal 1:25, 1min Inversion, 5.15 min, good result

Exposed 400, developed Spürsinn Joe 1:7, 1min Inversion, 11.45 min, good result

 

Exposed 400, developed Ultrafin Tetenal 1:20, 1min Inversion, 8 min, a little thin 

Kodak Tmax 100
Exposed 100, developed Ultrafin tetenal 1:20, 11.15 min, 1min Inversion, good result

Kodak Tmax 400
Exposed 400, developed Spürsinn Joe 1:6 10.15 min, 60 sec inv, good result

 

Rollei 80S

Exposed 80,  pinhole, dev Ultrafin Tetenal 1:20, 10 min, 1 min Inversion, good result

 

Delta 400 and generally Ilford Films in D76 are good
Streetpan 400 is real 400, loves bright sunlight, Rodinal
Delta 3200  ca 1600 ISO
Retro400 S is 200 ISO und yellow filter gives black sky
HP5 to 1600 (TriX curls to much) super good.

FP4 to 200 is good
Tmax Dev is good compensating dev for pushing

Ilford microphen is good for HP5
Diafine is great for pushing every film. 3min per solution, light inversion, eg stir, never let B contaminate A!, lasts forever.

Pushing to increase contrast, pull for ethereal look


Whats up?

This is kind of a logbook.

I will mainly post my findings, tips, tricks and methods in the long adventure of photography, especially film photography.

Over sixty years old, german,  writing in english is a bit difficult so kindly ignore the errors.