Scheimpflug

Tilting the front or back plane with a large format camera is a important feature.

The Scheimpflug rules explain the effect.

It states that the film-, sharpness- and lens plane meet themselves at some point.

In a usual small format camera they meet in infinity, therefor the planes are strictly parallel : III

As soon as you tilt, the planes meet and you can play with depth of field:

This is a picture of a view camera with lines drawn through the film plane, the lens plane and also showing the subject plane.  All three planes cross at the Scheimpflug Line.
Merklinger, http://www.trenholm.org/hmmerk/
http://www.trenholm.org/hmmerk/VCGM.gif
The Hinge rule
Diagram showing how depth of field works for view cameras.
Photograph of Lisa holding a surveyor's rod that indicated the position of the plane of sharpest focus for a view camera.  Copyright C. Reardon & H. Merklinger 1995.

Front plane tilting needs a larger image circle of the lens and puts the film to the edges of the image circle, out of the optimal sharpness region of the lens.

Back plane tilting avoids this problems.

Usually the tilt is just a few degrees, much less I expected at first.

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