Reciprocity – tables and calculator

Reciprocity means that certain films need more light than expected if you use long exposure times. (Schwarzschild Effect)

The values differ from film to film and you need to use tables, an app on your phone or a calculator as linked below.

With Foma 100 as an example you see that this film is not very great for long exposures (pinhole)

Some expected Foma 100 times, rounded, using the formula above:
time – time with reciprocity failure
5 seconds – 26 seconds
8 seconds – 56 seconds
10 seconds – 80 seconds
100 seconds – 1603 seconds (27 minutes)
600 seconds (10 minutes) – 3 hours
30 minutes – 9 hours
1 hour – 18 hours

Ilford films behave better:

Here you see the difference pretty good:

Ilford FP4+ : updated reciprocity information ...

Many of us just guess with the kodak table:
Kodak reciprocity table

By the way,

in an interview with Andrew Bartram in the large format podcast Clyde Butcher explained something very interesting:

He uses reciprocity deliberatly to increase contrast in his shots.

That concept was new to me and very interesting, so maybe the Fomapan film can be of execellent use for increasing contrast…

4 Antworten auf „Reciprocity – tables and calculator“

  1. Dear Gerhard,

    I read about the increase of contrast due to the reciprocity failure in Bruce Barnbaum’s Book The Art of Photography. He provides nice explanation of this effect.
    It is also mentioned in table of pg. 75 of Using the View Camera (by Steve Symmsons). If you use the zone system (N+1, etc ) in the development, you need also to adjust the development time (see p. 157). The interesting stuff is that if you increase dev. time (e.g., in N+1, N+2, etc.) you increase gain size. The Recip.Fail.Effect, on the contrary, does not increase grain size.



  2. Hi Gerhard,

    I will try this during my next trip. I will use a Big Stopper (LEE) for example, to increase contrast in a situation where N+1 dev is needed. I will make a second exposure with no ND filter but apply N+1 development. I will let you know the results.

    As a rule of thumb tue dev. Time adjustment is

    If reciprocity increased exposure by 1 stop is equivalent, -10% dev time. 2 stops -20% etc.

  3. one can also reduce contrast by using outdated film. here only CN tested. overexposing + 1 stop. push by 15%. 400 asa film meant. its like day and night when comparing rotapanshots done this way compared to fresh film.
    prefogging of fresh film another method. it will increase speed maybe by 2/3 stop. using outdated b+w must be tested.
    NB: Jobo just announced new B+W developper meant to be used in Rotator-processors. just got a cheap chinese rotator(the wrong version). can use it anyway with limitations. see FB Jobo

Schreibe einen Kommentar

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind mit * markiert