Film – Ilford

Ilford Pan 100 (old): 510-Pyro 1:200 10 min 1min Agitation, 21 C

Ilford delta 400: 510-Pyro 1:100 5 min 1min Agitation, 21C

Ilford FP4+: 510-Pyro 1:100 7,30 min 1min Agitation, 21C

Keatings Developers

Danie Keating regularly comes up with useful and very interesting ideas of alternative developers. Find him on flickr.

The formulas are as follows—assuming 300ml single reel 35mm tank:

Keating’s T42 Green Tea Phenol Developer

  • 300ml tap water room temp
  • 4ml 10% solution of sodium hydroxide (lye drain cleaner)
  • 0.7g sodium bicarbonate (common baking soda)
  • 0.5g ascorbic acid (vitamin C powder)
  • 0.25g Green tea Phenol powder

Times will vary with film speed 20 mins to 1 hour semi stand

Keating’s Peppermint Twisted Developer

*Same 300ml assumption

  • 300ml room temp tap water
  •  2g Sodium Metasilicate (this is sold as TSP/90 wall wash for paint prep at hardware stores)
  • 0.7g sodium bicarbonate
  • 1g ascorbic acid
  • 0.25g dried peppermint extract

40mins-1 hour stand—expect more grain with this formula on higher speed films. Use either formula soon after mixing.

Personally, I prefer the Green Tea version but you may want more grit for street photography. These small footprint formulas solve for the following:

  1. Less expensive than caffenol. 250G of green tea is $26 and 0.25g per roll means you can realize 1000 rolls at 2.6 cents per roll. Instant coffee is about 30 cents per roll for Caffenol.
  2. Less consumptive of total weight of chems—far smaller overall footprint or impact on what goes down the drain.
  3. No exposure to metol or sodium sulfite so contact dermatitis is avoided.
  4. Nothing has to come from a chemist.
  5. Image quality looks quite good to me

Another post from Daniel:

same negative Smena MZ3, the whimpy washed out scan was fixed in Kodak Rapid fix. The higher density one was achieved by re-fixing it in Arista non-hardening fixer. These are both raw scans of the same negs from same scanner. Easily a 1.5 stop boost

His pic shows the difference. Interesting.

Minox 9mm Film Development

Instructions for the 8x11film- Reel for JOBO Tank System 1500

With this reel your existing 8x11mm negative and slide films can be developed using the JOBO 1500 developing tank. It is based upon the small and medium format reel for the JOBO 1500 system (DuoSet 1501) and was developed jointly by 8x11film in co-operation with Minox GmbH. This is the first genuine alternative to the original MINOX daylight developing tank that is no longer in production.

The product from JOBO have a reputation for extreme dependability and easy of loading and our transformation of the spiral does not change anything. Please read the instructions carefully to learn from our 12 months experience and testing to get the most out of this product and avoid damages to the spiral parts.

The development of an 8×11 film reel to use in the inversion tank has several advantages over the discontinued Minox daylight developing tank. 35mm and roll film can be developed with the same solution and at the same time depending on the choice of JOBO tank several reels can be loaded at the same time.

The same temperature and duration of processing follow those supplied by the manufacture of the film and of the developer. The same techniques for temperature control, inversion, tilting and processing that apply to conventional film can be followed.

With some skill and care is possible to develop two 36 exposure MINOX films on one reel. However we recommend that separate reels are used for each film to avoid the films moving and overlapping during the developing process. This is particularly a problem with films that have a strong tendency to curl. These may not be successfully developed at the out edge of the spiral.

The development in the rotation processor becomes possible with the 8×11 film spool but only with drastically lowered rotational speed. This is because the exposed area the negative strip, despite the large clearance between the adjacent parts of the spiral or helix can come into contact with it aided by the constant linear direction of flow of the developer in connection with turbulence at the outside edges of the spiral – both can lead to different velocities of flow and thus creating locally different effects of the developing chemistry. This phenomenon does not occur if the rotation is accompanied by tilting (please note however the tips for the coil of the film as well as for the movement of the tank during the process!). The use of the 8×11 film spool with the combined tilting rotation (e.g. JOBO Autolab) is under test.

Assembly: Preparing the spool for use in the JOBO tank

The spool is composed four parts, as shown in the photograph: 

Part A.: the lower reel flange with the collar for the central column to anchor the upper flange in place.Part B.: the upper reel flange Part C.: the bayonet locking collar Part D.: a plastic locking pin, which serves as fixture for the upper spiral to prevent twisting during loading and development.   

First of all set the upper reel flange (B) on the centre tube fixed to the lower reel flange (A, picture left). The position of the bayonet pins are not symmetrical and the upper reel will have to be turned to slide into place. The upper reel flange must ultimately rest on the lower reel flange.

The bayonet locking (C) is put on in the same way. It will slide on in only one way, no force is needed. The narrower slots must be downwards towards the lower reel flange. Rotate clockwise, looking down, to firmly lock into place.

(G) The bayonet locking should not be twisted up to the end of the slot. It is sufficient to turn it so that the pins are centrally placed within the slots. (G)

The illustration left shows the correctly locked reel. The openings of both flange halves are positioned to face each other accurately (illustration right).

Insert the plastic locking pin (D) into the hole in the base of the lower flange. The pin head is flat one side, this points out towards the spiral so that it lies flush when fitted. In this position it locks the upper flange. Push the reel over the centre tube, thus the head of the pin is prevented from falling out. The reel is now ready for action. 

Loading 8×11 film

(GThe JOBO developing tank is not for daylight loading, therefore all following steps up to locking the box with the transferred film must take place in absolute darkness! (G)

Remove the caps of the MINOX film cassette. These held in place by small clips. Carefully use a thumbnail to lift the caps away and pull off. If the film has not been wound through it may be easier to take both caps off.

Cut off the end of the film with the keyhole with sharp scissors and round the corners. If the corners are not rounded the film can hook itself then moving along the spiral.

Tip: Use a clean porcelain plate as a dust free container to layout all the small articles and aid in finding them by touch. Take the prepared film in the left hand and the spool in the right. Feel for the reel opening the right thumb and slowly slide the negative strip with the rounded off end into the groove. By holding the negative strip with thumb and index finger (as shown) push the film completely into the reel.

(G) It is recommended that the film be pushed completely into the reel. The fact that the reel has a narrower part tapering towards the centre exposes the edge of the film and so you can continue to hold the film along the edge and push towards the middle. Thus there are fewer pressure points on the film material with the spiral. With films of extreme coiling tendency this helps, along with small rotation and agitation of the tank to prevent under-development of the edges of the negative. (G)

Still in the dark insert the reel into the tank. Push on the lid and firmly push down the sealing and clamping ring. If done correctly the remaining steps can be done in daylight. It is advisable to practice these steps with out film in the daylight until you are confident of doing the same process in the dark with the film to be processed.

The developing of the film

You can develop your film now according to manufacturer’s instructions, (G) although we do recommend to deploy a particular motion technique of the tank (G), by which as even a washing of the film as is possible to be ensured during the process. This is necessary, since the film with the exposed negative area overlaps with the spiral of the reels and must also be well washed. In addition this helps to possibly carry away last bubbles of air stuck on the emulsion and is done in conjunction with the traditional inversion and taping of the tank.

Tilting agitation, as in holding the tank and rotating the wrist, is not sufficient. The developing tank should additionally be tilted and rotated so that the liquid is rotated around the vertical axis. This is similar to the movement of liquid in a cognac glass. This auxiliary movement needs to be performed from the beginning and along with the applied tilting rhythm.  

Tilting agitation, as in holding the tank and rotating the wrist, is not sufficient. The developing tank should additionally be tilted and rotated so that the liquid is rotated around the vertical axis. This is similar to the movement of liquid in a cognac glass. This auxiliary movement needs to be performed at the beginning and along with minimum every second applied tilting rhythm.

It has no large influence on the developing time (depending on the sort of developer and the time of development). You may have to adjust the development times accordingly.

(G) Tilting time intervals by more than a half minute should be avoided! (G)

The developing solution with this reel must be at least 150ml and the reel must be positioned full down on the centre tube. When developing with several reels at the same time (8×11 and 35mm for example) the 8×11 reel should also be placed completely down on the centre tube.

Now follow the manufacturer’s instructions for the use of a stop bath (to neutralize the developer) and fixer. The first washing is often done in the tank.

After the development process

The washing should follow a fixing bath, for which distilled water with a minimum (!) additive of wetting agent should be used. Lift the reel from the developing tank, let the drips run off. Holding the lower flange in the left hand unlock the bayonet with the right hand and a twist anticlockwise. Do not twist the top flange as the pin is still in place. It will lift off easily when the bayonet locking collar has been removed.

If you are using a large JOBO developing tank it is easier to remove the reels from the centre tube first by pushing the tube downwards. The film can now be removed to dry. Rinse all the reel parts off before the next use with warm water and dry these carefully before storing. 

We hope you have a successful start developing with the 8x11film-Reel but we are always grateful for suggestions and improvement. Technical specifications and guide are subject to change and correction. All rights reserved.

Last updated 31st August 2007.

Yours sincerely, Marcus Michael Dunkmann, 8x11film.com

Developer: fine grain

Here nan interesting discussion about „fine grain“ devs:

Hi! here it is 🙂      

AGFA 12 FINE-GRAIN TANK DEVELOPER

This fine-grain formula keeps well and makes an excellent tank developer


Hot Water (125 F. or 52 C)
Agfa Metol 8 grams
Agfa Sodium Sulphite, anhydrous. .. 125 grams
Agfa Sodium Carbonate, monohydrated.  5.75 grams
Agfa Potassium Bromide 2.5 grams
Water to make  1 Liter.
Do not dilute for use. Develop 8 to 12 minutes at 65 F/(18 C.).

And a comment from (I think Rüdiger):

O.K. Fine grain is due to the high content of sodium sulfite (solving developer).


Potassium Bromide seems to be a little high. This may eat quite a lot of sensitivity 1 gramm up to one stop. Modern emulsions don’t need that much – if any.


I work with a much simpler bath that Barry Thornton made for new emulsions. It is a two-bath basically


Bath A:

6.5 g metol, 80 g sodium sulfite to 1 litre.

Bath B:

20 g of sodium metaborate to 1 litre


You „charge“ the emulsion in bath A with initial inversion 1 minute, then once per minute.

Then change to bath B without watering in between.

Initial inversion only once (in order not to wash out the developer) and also once per minute.


The good thing about is: Every  ISO 100 film need 4 minutes in each bath and every ISO 400 film 5 minutes.
The developer is good for 10 to 15 rolls.


Very good highlight balancing due to two-bath (developer gets exhausted in the highlights). Fine grain and sharp.You get at least box speed, if not 1/3 to 1/2 f-stop on top.

Film – Perutz 17

The German firm of Otto Perutz was established in 1870. It was the first to produce a roll film for the Leitz camera.

In 1880 Otto Perutz started the Perutz-Photowerke in Munich, Germany.

They first made dry film plates there and later made many innovations in early film photography.

The Perutz 17 film was produced in 1956, eight years before Perutz was taken over by Agfa in 1964 and in the year of my birth.

I got the Perutz 17 „tropical“, 40 ASA, expired 1966.

The „Tali“ meant in daylight loadable film, these had no cassettes.

Sadly I got no usable negs out of it.

Film – Orwo NP22 (exp. 1998)

I scanned the flyers that came with the 120 film and found the original R09 dev receipt:

I exposed the fim in an old Agfa Isolette a bit longer, using the sunny sixteen + one stop.

In R09 development 1:40 I used 20 Min at 20 Celsius, every min 3 agitations.

To compensate for non constant agitation you should at 15%, I did 20 min dev to give the film one more stop due to the old age.

Results were fine.

Film – Delta 3200

Dev times

Real Sensibility is about 1250 ISO, be careful with Rodinal (grain)

EntwicklerMischverhältnisASA/ISO35mm120Temperatur
D-76StockISO 4007 min7 min20°C
D-76StockISO 8008 min8 min20°C
D-76StockISO 16009:30 min9:30 min20°C
D-76StockISO 320010:30 min10:30 min20°C
D-76StockISO 640013 min13 min20°C
ID-11StockISO 4007 min7 min20°C
ID-11StockISO 8008 min8 min20°C
ID-11StockISO 16009:30 min9:30 min20°C
ID-11StockISO 320010:30 min10:30 min20°C
ID-11StockISO 640013 min13 min20°C
ILFOTEC DD-X1+4ISO 4006 min6 min20°C
ILFOTEC DD-X1+4ISO 8007 min7 min20°C
ILFOTEC DD-X1+4ISO 16008 min8 min20°C
ILFOTEC DD-X1+4ISO 32009:30 min9:30 min20°C
ILFOTEC DD-X1+4ISO 640012:30 min12:30 min20°C
MicrophenStockISO 4006 min6 min20°C
MicrophenStockISO 8007 min7 min20°C
MicrophenStockISO 16008 min8 min20°C
MicrophenStockISO 32009 min9 min20°C
MicrophenStockISO 640012 min12 min20°C
Rodinal1+25ISO 4005:30 min5:30 min20°C
Rodinal1+25ISO 8007 min7 min20°C
Rodinal1+25ISO 16009 min9 min20°C
Rodinal1+25ISO 320011 min11 min20°C
XtolStockISO 4005 min5 min20°C
XtolStockISO 8006 min6 min20°C
XtolStockISO 16006:30 min6:30 min20°C
XtolStockISO 32007:30 min7:30 min20°C
XtolStockISO 640010 min10 min20°C

Agitation: First 60 seconds, than 4 inversions every minute