Umkehrentwicklung Fotopapier

nach Rüdiger Hartungs Mitteilung in „facebook“

1 Papierentwickler normal bis etwas höher verdünnt (für schwache Kontraste)
2. Rotes Blutlaugensalz 40 Gramm pro Liter an.
3. Klärbad 90g Natriumsulfit in einem Liter Wasser.
4. Ein Blitzgerät zur Nachbelichtung (oder Lampe)

  1. Fotopapier mit dem Dia 2 bis 3 Blenden überbelichten. Falls das Endergebniss (Positiv) noch zu dunkel ist, noch mehr überbelichten.

2. Erstwicklung. Ausentwickeln. Es entsteht zunächst ein Negativ. Wegen der Überbelichtung ist dies sehr dunkel.
– kurz in Wasser abspülen –

3. Bleichbad. Mindestens 2 Minuten. Es bleibt ein Restbild stehen. Wenn sich absolut nichts mehr tut,
-kurz mit Wasser abspülen-

4. Klärbad. Auch mindestens 2 Minuten. Zum Ende hin wird das Restbild etwas flacher, milchiger.
– in Wasser mit Bild nach oben legen-

5. Nachbelichten. Blitz mit kleinster Leistungstufe und ca 1m Abstand.

(Variante : Wer eine Schwefel/Sephiatonung macht, kann sich die Nachbelichtung und Zweitentwicklung sparen, das erledigt der Schwefeltoner zusammen).

5. Zweitentwicklung im selben Entwickler (wer die etwas besser steuern möchte, kann 1+1 verdünnen).

5. Fixieren, wässern.

Bei Licht Ergebnis beurteilen.

Falls das Positiv zu hart oder zu dicht ist:
(Das Bild muss sehr gut gewässert sein nach dem Fixieren. Fixierreste plus Bleiche frisst Lichter unwiederbringlich weg!)

Nochmals bei Licht in die Bleiche (ggf. stärker verdünnen 1+5) und so lange bleichen, bis die Schatten so sind, wie man sie haben möchte und dann schnell in Wasser und bewegen. Die Lichter werden dann mit sehr stark verdünntem Erstentwickler (1+10) zurück entwickelt. Ggf. wiederholen. Dann nochmals fixieren und wässern.

Geht praktisch schneller, als es hier den Anschein hat.

Pinhole – macro

I am thinking of doing some pinhole macro work.

Looking the internet up I found some interesting thoughts

If you draw a ray diagram you may see a problem if you bring it very close to your subject, and your film sensitivity curve isn’t narrow.

For one thing the material in which the hole is made would need to be very thin, or you’ll get some odd vignetting.

But also remember that pinhole does a very poor job of focusing different wavelengths to the same plane. As the subject gets closer to the pinhole, that issue should get more noticeable: rays containing all the colours will need to approach the pinhole from more extreme angles.

Hence my suggestion to use a film with a narrow sensitivity curve… it’d be best if it were sensitive to a single wavelength

Seems I will have to do some tests myself

Film – Ilford

Ilford Pan 100 (old): 510-Pyro 1:200 10 min 1min Agitation, 21 C

Ilford delta 400: 510-Pyro 1:100 5 min 1min Agitation, 21C

Ilford FP4+: 510-Pyro 1:100 7,30 min 1min Agitation, 21C

Keatings Developers

Danie Keating regularly comes up with useful and very interesting ideas of alternative developers. Find him on flickr.

The formulas are as follows—assuming 300ml single reel 35mm tank:

Keating’s T42 Green Tea Phenol Developer

  • 300ml tap water room temp
  • 4ml 10% solution of sodium hydroxide (lye drain cleaner)
  • 0.7g sodium bicarbonate (common baking soda)
  • 0.5g ascorbic acid (vitamin C powder)
  • 0.25g Green tea Phenol powder

Times will vary with film speed 20 mins to 1 hour semi stand

Keating’s Peppermint Twisted Developer

*Same 300ml assumption

  • 300ml room temp tap water
  •  2g Sodium Metasilicate (this is sold as TSP/90 wall wash for paint prep at hardware stores)
  • 0.7g sodium bicarbonate
  • 1g ascorbic acid
  • 0.25g dried peppermint extract

40mins-1 hour stand—expect more grain with this formula on higher speed films. Use either formula soon after mixing.

Personally, I prefer the Green Tea version but you may want more grit for street photography. These small footprint formulas solve for the following:

  1. Less expensive than caffenol. 250G of green tea is $26 and 0.25g per roll means you can realize 1000 rolls at 2.6 cents per roll. Instant coffee is about 30 cents per roll for Caffenol.
  2. Less consumptive of total weight of chems—far smaller overall footprint or impact on what goes down the drain.
  3. No exposure to metol or sodium sulfite so contact dermatitis is avoided.
  4. Nothing has to come from a chemist.
  5. Image quality looks quite good to me

Another post from Daniel:

same negative Smena MZ3, the whimpy washed out scan was fixed in Kodak Rapid fix. The higher density one was achieved by re-fixing it in Arista non-hardening fixer. These are both raw scans of the same negs from same scanner. Easily a 1.5 stop boost

His pic shows the difference. Interesting.

Minox 9mm Film Development

Instructions for the 8x11film- Reel for JOBO Tank System 1500

With this reel your existing 8x11mm negative and slide films can be developed using the JOBO 1500 developing tank. It is based upon the small and medium format reel for the JOBO 1500 system (DuoSet 1501) and was developed jointly by 8x11film in co-operation with Minox GmbH. This is the first genuine alternative to the original MINOX daylight developing tank that is no longer in production.

The product from JOBO have a reputation for extreme dependability and easy of loading and our transformation of the spiral does not change anything. Please read the instructions carefully to learn from our 12 months experience and testing to get the most out of this product and avoid damages to the spiral parts.

The development of an 8×11 film reel to use in the inversion tank has several advantages over the discontinued Minox daylight developing tank. 35mm and roll film can be developed with the same solution and at the same time depending on the choice of JOBO tank several reels can be loaded at the same time.

The same temperature and duration of processing follow those supplied by the manufacture of the film and of the developer. The same techniques for temperature control, inversion, tilting and processing that apply to conventional film can be followed.

With some skill and care is possible to develop two 36 exposure MINOX films on one reel. However we recommend that separate reels are used for each film to avoid the films moving and overlapping during the developing process. This is particularly a problem with films that have a strong tendency to curl. These may not be successfully developed at the out edge of the spiral.

The development in the rotation processor becomes possible with the 8×11 film spool but only with drastically lowered rotational speed. This is because the exposed area the negative strip, despite the large clearance between the adjacent parts of the spiral or helix can come into contact with it aided by the constant linear direction of flow of the developer in connection with turbulence at the outside edges of the spiral – both can lead to different velocities of flow and thus creating locally different effects of the developing chemistry. This phenomenon does not occur if the rotation is accompanied by tilting (please note however the tips for the coil of the film as well as for the movement of the tank during the process!). The use of the 8×11 film spool with the combined tilting rotation (e.g. JOBO Autolab) is under test.

Assembly: Preparing the spool for use in the JOBO tank

The spool is composed four parts, as shown in the photograph: 

Part A.: the lower reel flange with the collar for the central column to anchor the upper flange in place.Part B.: the upper reel flange Part C.: the bayonet locking collar Part D.: a plastic locking pin, which serves as fixture for the upper spiral to prevent twisting during loading and development.   

First of all set the upper reel flange (B) on the centre tube fixed to the lower reel flange (A, picture left). The position of the bayonet pins are not symmetrical and the upper reel will have to be turned to slide into place. The upper reel flange must ultimately rest on the lower reel flange.

The bayonet locking (C) is put on in the same way. It will slide on in only one way, no force is needed. The narrower slots must be downwards towards the lower reel flange. Rotate clockwise, looking down, to firmly lock into place.

(G) The bayonet locking should not be twisted up to the end of the slot. It is sufficient to turn it so that the pins are centrally placed within the slots. (G)

The illustration left shows the correctly locked reel. The openings of both flange halves are positioned to face each other accurately (illustration right).

Insert the plastic locking pin (D) into the hole in the base of the lower flange. The pin head is flat one side, this points out towards the spiral so that it lies flush when fitted. In this position it locks the upper flange. Push the reel over the centre tube, thus the head of the pin is prevented from falling out. The reel is now ready for action. 

Loading 8×11 film

(GThe JOBO developing tank is not for daylight loading, therefore all following steps up to locking the box with the transferred film must take place in absolute darkness! (G)

Remove the caps of the MINOX film cassette. These held in place by small clips. Carefully use a thumbnail to lift the caps away and pull off. If the film has not been wound through it may be easier to take both caps off.

Cut off the end of the film with the keyhole with sharp scissors and round the corners. If the corners are not rounded the film can hook itself then moving along the spiral.

Tip: Use a clean porcelain plate as a dust free container to layout all the small articles and aid in finding them by touch. Take the prepared film in the left hand and the spool in the right. Feel for the reel opening the right thumb and slowly slide the negative strip with the rounded off end into the groove. By holding the negative strip with thumb and index finger (as shown) push the film completely into the reel.

(G) It is recommended that the film be pushed completely into the reel. The fact that the reel has a narrower part tapering towards the centre exposes the edge of the film and so you can continue to hold the film along the edge and push towards the middle. Thus there are fewer pressure points on the film material with the spiral. With films of extreme coiling tendency this helps, along with small rotation and agitation of the tank to prevent under-development of the edges of the negative. (G)

Still in the dark insert the reel into the tank. Push on the lid and firmly push down the sealing and clamping ring. If done correctly the remaining steps can be done in daylight. It is advisable to practice these steps with out film in the daylight until you are confident of doing the same process in the dark with the film to be processed.

The developing of the film

You can develop your film now according to manufacturer’s instructions, (G) although we do recommend to deploy a particular motion technique of the tank (G), by which as even a washing of the film as is possible to be ensured during the process. This is necessary, since the film with the exposed negative area overlaps with the spiral of the reels and must also be well washed. In addition this helps to possibly carry away last bubbles of air stuck on the emulsion and is done in conjunction with the traditional inversion and taping of the tank.

Tilting agitation, as in holding the tank and rotating the wrist, is not sufficient. The developing tank should additionally be tilted and rotated so that the liquid is rotated around the vertical axis. This is similar to the movement of liquid in a cognac glass. This auxiliary movement needs to be performed from the beginning and along with the applied tilting rhythm.  

Tilting agitation, as in holding the tank and rotating the wrist, is not sufficient. The developing tank should additionally be tilted and rotated so that the liquid is rotated around the vertical axis. This is similar to the movement of liquid in a cognac glass. This auxiliary movement needs to be performed at the beginning and along with minimum every second applied tilting rhythm.

It has no large influence on the developing time (depending on the sort of developer and the time of development). You may have to adjust the development times accordingly.

(G) Tilting time intervals by more than a half minute should be avoided! (G)

The developing solution with this reel must be at least 150ml and the reel must be positioned full down on the centre tube. When developing with several reels at the same time (8×11 and 35mm for example) the 8×11 reel should also be placed completely down on the centre tube.

Now follow the manufacturer’s instructions for the use of a stop bath (to neutralize the developer) and fixer. The first washing is often done in the tank.

After the development process

The washing should follow a fixing bath, for which distilled water with a minimum (!) additive of wetting agent should be used. Lift the reel from the developing tank, let the drips run off. Holding the lower flange in the left hand unlock the bayonet with the right hand and a twist anticlockwise. Do not twist the top flange as the pin is still in place. It will lift off easily when the bayonet locking collar has been removed.

If you are using a large JOBO developing tank it is easier to remove the reels from the centre tube first by pushing the tube downwards. The film can now be removed to dry. Rinse all the reel parts off before the next use with warm water and dry these carefully before storing. 

We hope you have a successful start developing with the 8x11film-Reel but we are always grateful for suggestions and improvement. Technical specifications and guide are subject to change and correction. All rights reserved.

Last updated 31st August 2007.

Yours sincerely, Marcus Michael Dunkmann,

Infrared Photography – purists beware, here are some digital info´s

First you have to decide if you want to do colour or b/w.

If you want to get colour images , use a 630 up to 720 filter, the filters below this wavelenght (750…950) will give you nearly no colour information…

Different sensors or films give remarkable different results!

The Standard IR Filter (720nm) is the classic IR filter. It allows some visible light to pass for color processing and gives good contrast for black and white. E.A: the Hoya R72 and Wratten 89b.

The 550nm IR Filter lets in the lots of visible light creating blue skies and blood crimson reds. It has the look of old IR films. It’s also good for infrared portraits, it keeps rather neutral skin tones (the 590nm will expose veins) and still provides color information.

The 665nm filter is in between the 720nm and the 590nm, showing more vibrant colors than the 720nm. The 665 comes out more reliably between different cameras and lighting conditions.

The 850nm filter and 920nm are good for black and white IR and will show bright whites and pronounced darks. With a custom white balance in camera, the picture is close to pure B+W.  E.a. the Wratten 87c.

With film test your focus and your exposure time with bracketing, both can be rather difficult to find and change rapidly and sometimes unpredictable with light conditions (we cannot see infrared;-) ).

Try to have the sun in the back or at your side, pics toward the sun often have very low contrast and lots of flares.

Best are sunny days and the trees and grasses should be green to get the „wood“ effect.

The best light source is the sun, but moonlight works well, too.

Camera flashes emit infrared as well as visible light so they can be used for infrared flash photography. It is possible to cover the flash with an IR filter to get rid of the visible portion of the flash and have a dedicated IR flash.

If you go digital:

Use raw files!

Use a modded camera with no infrared filter (or give it a try with a tripod and take your (long) time)

Use „live view“ if possible, so you should be able to rely on the automatic metering and autofocus.

In your raw converter:

If you shoot b/w use the LAB modus and the L (red) channel.

For colour

Set your white balance on the (white) greens

Use the cannel mixer to switch the red and blue channel.

(This is the usual result:

Red Channel: Red=0, Green=0, Blue=100
Blue Channel: Red=100, Green=0, Blue=0
Green Channel: Red=0, Green=100, Blue=0

Sometimes this is giving a better result:

Red Channel: Red=0, Green=0, Blue=100
Blue Channel: Red=100, Green=100, Blue=-100
Green Channel: Red=0, Green=0, Blue=100

Add Hue/Saturation

Apply contrast / use curves / dynamic contrast…

Add structure/details/clarity or however your software names it

Play with blending modes (contrast etc, e.a. luminosity)

Small variations in my White Balance or Channel Mixer settings (the two most important settings for IR) as well as the sequencing of the processing steps have often led to very different results.

Your IR results will depend on several more factors:

  • Camera make/model and sensor
  • Infrared filter used (there may be even variations between vendors)
  • RAW or JPEG processing
  • Your Lens
  • Type of vegetation and its ability to reflect IR light

Still for me to try:

Vittorio Sergi : If you like the usual 720nm faux color conversion with a blue sky, just skip the channel swapping step altoghether, grab a hue and saturation Adj. layer and slam the hue slider one all the way left or right so that the value reads 180 or -180, there you have a nicely done blue hue as it should be, given that you nailed white balance

720nm Filter, May 2020:

Closed bridges


Developer: fine grain

Here nan interesting discussion about „fine grain“ devs:

Hi! here it is 🙂      


This fine-grain formula keeps well and makes an excellent tank developer

Hot Water (125 F. or 52 C)
Agfa Metol 8 grams
Agfa Sodium Sulphite, anhydrous. .. 125 grams
Agfa Sodium Carbonate, monohydrated.  5.75 grams
Agfa Potassium Bromide 2.5 grams
Water to make  1 Liter.
Do not dilute for use. Develop 8 to 12 minutes at 65 F/(18 C.).

And a comment from (I think Rüdiger):

O.K. Fine grain is due to the high content of sodium sulfite (solving developer).

Potassium Bromide seems to be a little high. This may eat quite a lot of sensitivity 1 gramm up to one stop. Modern emulsions don’t need that much – if any.

I work with a much simpler bath that Barry Thornton made for new emulsions. It is a two-bath basically

Bath A:

6.5 g metol, 80 g sodium sulfite to 1 litre.

Bath B:

20 g of sodium metaborate to 1 litre

You „charge“ the emulsion in bath A with initial inversion 1 minute, then once per minute.

Then change to bath B without watering in between.

Initial inversion only once (in order not to wash out the developer) and also once per minute.

The good thing about is: Every  ISO 100 film need 4 minutes in each bath and every ISO 400 film 5 minutes.
The developer is good for 10 to 15 rolls.

Very good highlight balancing due to two-bath (developer gets exhausted in the highlights). Fine grain and sharp.You get at least box speed, if not 1/3 to 1/2 f-stop on top.