Linux — Dell laptop and Macbook air

in the last weeks to friends of mine did the switch to linux.

I promised to list the programs/extensions I use on my ubuntu laptop.

Here they are, in no specific order.

I switched to Kubuntu on the Dell laptop. 
The gnome desktop is not flexible enough for me.

KDE is nice, there is just one glitch I do not understand:
Only in Kubuntu installing .deb packages with apt or doubleklick I got frequently a "Not resolved dependencies" error.
I was in despair, but then I read this error is a fake, 
I should use dpkg -i to install.
And... that did it. Why???

And another problem I did not see in Ubuntu:
The NAS smb was shown in Nautilus, but not in Dolphin...

My Ubuntu and / (a few of them) Kubuntu mods:

gnome extensions

applications menue extension
alphabetical app grid extension

espanso / autokey
midnight commander  (mc)

super tux cart ;-)


Gnome gmail
Gnome Sushi

dock to panel
Tiling Assistant

Okular  Dokumentenviewer / Kate
XN View



network stats  extension
(executor extension)

google earth view wallpaper

Google earth 
get -O google-earth64.deb
sudo dpkg -i google-earth64.deb
sudo apt-get -f install; rm google-earth64.deb

nvidea  ubuntu-drivers autoinstall

Fingerprint reader Dell laptop:

echo "
deb focal-dell public
deb focal-oem public
deb focal-somerville public
deb focal-somerville-melisa public" | \
sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/focal-dell.list

# Add the Dmacbook airell repository key (F9FDA6BED73CDC22) to apt
sudo apt-key adv --keyserver --recv-keys F9FDA6BED73CDC22
sudo apt update

# Install fingerprint reader packages
sudo apt install -y \
    oem-somerville-melisa-meta \
    oem-somerville-meta \
    libfprint-2-tod1-goodix \

reboot, dann User, Authent… und Fingerprint

Macbook Air 

I tried Fedora:
Bad WiFi and difficult to install propietory drivers.

I tried Arch and Manjero:
Very flaky and slow WiFi with all tested drivers.

I tried Parrot OS:

Nice, but the touchpad was difficult to use, jumpy, and the fonts not so readable..

I tried Linux Mint:

Splendid WiFi but no smt devices detected, Network detection crashed. Reinstall...the same problem. No one could help me in the groups, even the specialist google had no solutions. 

Pop OS:

Worse. Programs got stuck alarmingly often, bad wifi and crashes of fontmanager every time..

I tried Ubuntu:
Everything worked out of the box. Bravo!

I switched to Kubuntu:
Everything working! Great. (Just the same apt dependencies error as described above)

BTW, I had to install the german gui for Libreoffice by myself, it defaulted to English.

sudo apt install libreoffice-help-de
sudo apt install libreoffice-l10n-de

Than I had to set the screen manually to 1600x900, using an entry in ~\.profiles.

It outputs current screen resolution as well as all available solutions. All I needed here is the display device name, in my case, it’s eDP-1. 

cvt 1600 900

Replace 1600 900 (1600X900 in my case) in the command to your desired screen resolution.

Copy the Modeline, and run command to add new mode:

sudo xrandr --newmode "1600x900_60.00"  118.25  1600 1696 1856 2112  900 903 908 934 -hsync +vsync

Now add the new created mode for your display device:

sudo xrandr --addmode eDP-1 "1600x900_60.00"

Finally Apply the new resolution in the Display settings 

To make Ubuntu remember the new created screen resolution at next start, you have to edit the .profile via command:

sudo nano) ~/.profile

And insert at the end:

xrandr --newmode "1600x900_60.00"  118.25  1600 1696 1856 2112  900 903 908 934 -hsync +vsync
xrandr --addmode eDP-1 "1600x900_60.00"

...more to come as the journey goes on...

3D Printing

After printing my lensboards, lenscaps and other needed items my craftbot printer sadly died on me.

The new one is a Anycubic Vyper which is printing really nice.

For my rather simple needs I construct with Openascad and slice with Cura.

Updating the vyper was fairly easy, you first update the mainboard with inserting the sd card.

But than (!) you update the display with a micro sd card. This card only works if it is fat32 4096 bit formatted, I used an old 8Gb card.

Pico_ducky „bad usb“

A fast and convenient way to automate some tasks is to create an „bad usb“ working as a HID (human interface device), typing in commands for you. eg. doing a backup or starting apps you need.

I did this on an rapberry pico.

Step 1:

  • Download CircuitPython
  • Plug your raspberry pi pico in
  • Copy & paste the downloaded .uf2 in the raspberry pi pico.
  • Unplug and plug your raspberry pi pico

Now your Raspberry pi pico will be the CircuitPython.

Step 2:

Step 3:

  • Delete the file from raspberry pi pico.
  • Download the python file which will convert our payload. File Download Link ⇒ pico-ducky
  • Open the folder and copy & paste the file to the raspi pico.
  • Rename the file to the

OK, now load a payload on the raspi and watch.

But: it works as an englisah (US) HID, on a german language PC it will not work.

So I did this:

Go to the latest release page, look if your language is in the list.

Download the py zip, named

Find your language/layout in the lib directory

For a language de, copy the following files from the zip’s lib folder to the lib directory of the board.
DO NOT modify the adafruit_hid directory. Your files go directly in lib.
DO NOT change the names or extensions of the files. Just pick the right ones.
Replace LANG with the letters for your language of choice.


Modify the (later) on the pi to use your language file:

At the start of the replace these lines:

from adafruit_hid.keyboard_layout_us import KeyboardLayoutUS
from adafruit_hid.keycode import Keycode

With this lines:

from keyboard_layout_win_de import KeyboardLayout
from keycode_win_de import Keycode

And also replace this line:

layout = KeyboardLayoutUS(kbd)

With this line:

layout = KeyboardLayout(kbd)

Now — you have a ducky for a german pc…

Developer HC 110

HC 110 seems to have a upswept curve.

Dilution from EUROPEAN CONCENTRATE (500 1466)240 mL
(1 roll, steel tank)
300 mL
(1 roll, plastic tank)
480 mL
(2 rolls, steel tank)
600 mL
(2 rolls, plastic tank)
A (1:4)48 mL60 mL96 mL120 mL
B (1:9)24 mL30 mL48 mL60 mL
C (1:5.25)38.5 mL48 mL77 mL96 mL
D (1:11.5)21 mL26 mL38.5 mL52 mL
E (1:14)16 mL20 mL32 mL40 mL
F (1:24)9.6 mL*12 mL*19 mL24 mL
G (1:36.5)6.4 mL*8 mL*12.8 mL*16 mL*
H (1:19)12 mL*15 mL*24 mL30 mL

*Be sure to use at least 19.2 mL of European concentrate per 135-36 or 120 roll of film, even if this requires you to put more than the usual amount of liquid in the tank.

Dilutions G and H are unofficial — not described in any Kodak publications. See „Unusual Uses“ below. I use Dilution H as a substitute for Dilution B to give twice the development time.

Dilutions C, D, and E seem to have been designed to match, respectively, the developing times of DK-50, DK-50 1:1, and DK-50 1:2 with sheet film (Carroll, Photographic Lab Handbook, 1979).

With this developer, development time is roughly proportional to dilution. Thus:

Dilution DDevelop 25% longer than with Dilution B
Dilution EDevelop 50% longer than with Dilution B
Dilution FDevelop 2.5 times as long as with Dilution B

I bought mine by Fotoimpex online and got the original concentrate, not the „european“ one.

A test Foma 100 in solution B, 6 minutes, 21C and 10sec every min agitation gave me good results.

Here is a good summary:

Foma Film

This is a nice film for its price.

The recirprocity is really „bad“, but I still like it, even for my pinhole shots if there is some light.

100 very good with Tmax and Rodinal
, my favorite Foma film in all formats. Results in HC110 (6 min, sol B, 21 C) were also good.

200 don t like this film, never used it
400 rather grainy
320 retro I find the film not sharp enough

Software: Darktable

With the midyear 2021 I ended my worklife.

Adobe cloud is a rather expensive abo for an amateur and hobbyist, so I switched to Darktable and gimp.

Gimp is miles behind photoshop, but for my seldom used meager skills it is just fine.

Darktable is brilliant.

Of course the organizer part is rudimentary, but the modules are absolutely great, there are lots of tutorials and if you like mathematical or technical background you get it if you want it.

In the new version I fell absolutely in love with the negadoctor module to work with my scanned negs (color or bw).

Bruce Williams did a fabulous job with his about 100 tutorial vieos „hands on“ and Alexanders vids in „a dabble with photography“ give you the theoretical background.

Tip in Darktable:

In Inkscape import a nice sky and save it as vektorfile .svg in Program files-darkatbale-share-darktable-watermarks.

Now you can mask a sky and insert a new one as watermark (module watermark).

Update 3.8: png is now supported

Macbook air 2016 with Linux

I read a lot about wifi problems or mousepad problems installing linux on mac hardware and thze possible workarounds.

Now I tried a life distro of Kali, it worked out of the box.

Than I burnt the kali regular distro on a usb stick and ran the installer.

Absolutely no problems, mousepad, wifi, display resolution working flawless.

Ubuntu is also running without any problems and without workarounds.

I use it primarily for network analysis,

but also to work on photos with Darktable or Gimp.

Lightroom – Grunge look

​Grunge Effekt

1. Import the file into Lightroom and in the Develop module, use the eyedropper tool and do a custom white balance .

This is achieved by finding a neutral area on your image (gray or white)

Another option is to use Lightroom’s auto white balance.

2. Increase shadows (+85) and decrease highlights (-60).

3. Switch on clipping mask (J) or by clicking on little triangles above the histogram.

Move the blacks slider to the left until your image good blacks. The areas in blue highlight loss of detail in the shadows,

move the highlights to the right and areas highlighted in red indicate loss of detail in highlights.

4. Increase the mid-tone contrast (or clarity).

5. Decrease saturation

6. Increase vibrance to bring some tone back.

7. Add a vignette from the Effects menu.

Raspberry Pi Camera Surveillance

My goal was to use the raspi as a surveillance camera. It should send me pics if movement is detected. Here my tips and tricks…

(remember : this is just my logbook, not a tutorial with all details…)

The difficult way — Motion

Using Raspberry Pi Imager to burn the sd card. First surprise:

CTRL+SHIFT+X gives you an advanced menu and you can configure you ssh and wlan before even burning. Sweet!

Install motion software.

sudo apt-get install motion

sudo motion start

cd /etc/motion/

sudo nano motion.conf

stream_localhost – set it to off

Install sendmail

$ sudo apt-get remove postfix
$ sudo apt-get purge postfix

$ sudo su

apt-get install sendmail sendmail-bin mailutils

Later I found (long search) I had to install this, too

# sudo apt-get install libsasl2-modules

#  mkdir -m 700 /etc/mail/authinfo

create a file named gmail-smtp-raspi (or else) and input your gmail account here

#  nano /etc/mail/authinfo/gmail-smtp-raspi
Fill in : 
AuthInfo: "U:root" "" "P:GMAIL_USER_PASSWORD"

We have to create a database map from gmail-smtp-raspi (or else) file using makemap utility as below command.

# makemap hash /etc/mail/authinfo/gmail-smtp-raspi < /etc/mail/authinfo/gmail-smtp-raspi 

# nano /etc/mail/

Next, Copy and Paste below lines in /etc/mail/ file above MAILER_DEFINITIONS as shown below,

dnl #
dnl # Defining Gmail Smarthost for sendmail
define(`RELAY_MAILER_ARGS', `TCP $h 587')dnl
define(`ESMTP_MAILER_ARGS', `TCP $h 587')dnl
define(`confAUTH_OPTIONS', `A p')dnl
FEATURE(`authinfo',`hash -o /etc/mail/authinfo/gmail-smtp-raspi.db')dnl

dnl #
dnl # Default Mailer setup

# make -C /etc/mail

# /etc/init.d/sendmail reload

Test it:

# echo „test mail for sendmail gmail relay“ | mail -s „Sendmail Test“

You may have to switch the settings in your google account to allow unsecure apps.

The easy way — Motioneye

Download the latest MotionEyeOS software release

Install the image on the sd card

Now we install the wlan access

sudo nano /media/<user>/rootfs/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

and put this in the above created file:

ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=netdev
    ssid="<network id>"
    psk="<network key>"

Now ssh enable if you want:

cd /media/<user>/boot/

touch ssh

Strg C

Now the sd card in the raspi,

OK, get the raspi IP with a ip scanner,

than login with your browser to this IP.

    Username: admin
    Password: [No password, leave blank]

You can configure pretty much everything in your web user interface. We recommend taking a look at the following configurations when configuring the MotionEyeOS for the first time.

    Go to the three bars menu, and open the General Settings;
    Enable Advanced Settings;
    You can set the admin username and set a password;
    You can also set a name for a surveillance user, and its password;
    Set your timezone and a hostname.

Click the orange button at the top right “Apply”  – this will require a reboot.

Ready to go